The lesson that can be drawn from these results can be formulated as follows. It is unlikely that a global agreement will be signed by all the countries concerned. Over time, several parallel agreements will emerge. National measures and/or policies implemented by small groups of countries are taken to protect the environment. The IEA website is constantly reviewed and updated. During 2017, a comprehensive review took place with numerous bilateral agreements and a comprehensive update of accession measures for all multilateral environmental agreements and a large number of ANA. The current content includes more than 1,300 MEAs, more than 2,200 FTAs, 250 other environmental agreements and more than 90,000 „accession measures“ of individual countries (date of signature, ratification or entry into force; Release notes here). Many thanks to Jörg Balsiger and Lorris Germann of the University of Geneva, who identified more than 650 BEAs and created the basis for the IDB to become a comprehensive list of bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements. A list of BEAs by decade can be found here. Assessment data from lists of threatened species and changes in the status of threatened species can feed into several other international environmental agreements. For example, Agenda 21 was fundamental to recognizing that environmental protection requires cross-border cooperation. Agenda 21 should reflect an international consensus to support and complement national sustainable development strategies and plans.
He called on all States to participate in the improvement, protection and management of ecosystems and to assume joint responsibility for the future. Recently, there has been a fierce debate about whether it makes sense to use trade policy to encourage participation in global BAIs. In the AEA president`s speech in 2015, for example, Nordhaus advocated tariff sanctions against countries that do not participate in global climate agreements (Nordhaus, 2015). The basic idea is to link cooperation on „public goods“, which suffers from serious free rider problems, to cooperation on „club property“, where the benefits of cooperation are largely excluded. Other scientists who have formally studied this idea include Barrett (1997, 1999) and Eichner and Pethig (2014). These policy objectives can only be achieved if a number of important international environmental agreements are actively supported and properly implemented, both at Union and global level. The models of Barrett (1997, 1999), Eichner and Pethig (2014) and Nordhaus (2015) formalize the participation relationship as trade sanctions imposed exogenously on non-participants in the IEA without modelling the endogenous choice of trade policy by governments or the formation of trade agreements. Therefore, in my opinion, the conceptual picture offered by these models is incomplete and leaves some important questions unanswered: a final question concerns the results and impact of a specific institutional provision of a public good at the international level. What are the political outcomes of such a solution and how does it affect existing governance structures? The first question concerns the problem-solving capacity of an institutional solution, i.e.
the effectiveness of the institutional framework created and the instruments used to solve the problem. This begs the question: does an international environmental agreement contribute to the protection of threatened natural resources? Since institutional solutions are widely negotiated with a view to their possible distribution outcomes, their de facto distributive effects need to be identified. Who benefits and who loses because of a particular institutional solution, and what does this mean for the stability of the chosen solution? The second aspect concerns the fact that specific institutional solutions to the problems of the common good across borders influence existing governance and governance structures. Thus, the formal decision-making powers and the de facto power of national actors are modified by specific institutional solutions. An example of this is the European Union`s attempts to solve collective problems of action in environmental policy, which have called into question the competences of sub-national actors in the Member States. Similarly, the de facto participation of euro associations in policy-making has led to a loss of political power of national associations. Finally, the question arises as to how the overall structure and functions of the traditional state change in an environment where public goods are provided by forms of international governance. Does this imply the disappearance of the traditional state (Majone 1996, Grande and Eberlein 1999) towards a regulatory state? However, when BTA is introduced, the game changes. For most of the model`s specifications, BTA-free SEP and the best BTA-free environmental policy are strictly dominant strategies.
That is, e > b > a, g > d > c and j > h > f. Since there is no restriction on the use of BTA, the likely outcome of the game is that both countries with BTA have the best environmental policies. This follows from the above point: ecodumping is an inefficient way to subsidize export industries. In addition, by introducing a tariff, both countries can draw surpluses from each other`s company`s producers. Before proceeding, it is natural to ask: Is the link of participation really a different link from that of negotiation and enforcement? The answer is yes. It is different from the negotiating link, because the threat of trade sanctions to incentivize participation in BAIs does not mean that governments negotiate trade policy and environmental policy together (in fact, as I mentioned earlier, the participation link is a weaker term than the negotiation link, and it only strengthens when negotiations are separated). It is also very different from linking enforcement in that it aims to encourage countries to participate in BAIs, not to improve compliance. If governments are very patient so that there are no compliance issues, there is no need to link enforcement (i.e. trade sanctions to punish violations of environmental obligations), but the link between participation (threat of trade sanctions to encourage countries to make environmental commitments) may useful.ao it is worth discussing CITES in more detail about the number of people who misinterpret it, to be a method of measuring the risk of extinction.
CITES lists species in three appendices based on their conservation status and the risk they pose from international trade. The appendices cited are not traditional lists of threatened species, as they are not only intended to signal vulnerability to extinction; Rather, they highlight species for which trade could threaten their survival. .